robur

rōbur ( rōbor, v. Lucr. p. 140 Lachm.; also an older form rōbus, Cato, R. R. 17, 1; Col. 2, 6, 1; cf. Paul. ex Fest. p. 264 Müll.), ŏris, n. [cf. Sanscr. radh-as, abundance; Gr. rhônnumi for rhôthnumi, to strengthen, rhômê], a very hard kind of oak (cf.:

quercus, ilex),

Plin. 16, 6, 8, § 19; 16, 7, 10, § 28; 16, 38, 73, § 186; 16, 40, 76, § 204; 16, 40, 77, § 218.— Hence,
I.
Lit.
1.
In gen., a very hard kind of tree or wood:

morsus roboris,

i. e. of the wild olive, Verg. A. 12, 783 (a little before: foliis oleaster amaris Hic steterat);

so of the same,

id. G. 2, 305; cf.:

solido de robore myrtus,

id. ib. 2, 64:

annoso validam robore quercum,

i. e. of an old and sturdy trunk, id. A. 4, 441; so,

annoso robore quercus,

Ov. M. 8, 743:

antiquo robore quercus,

with ancient trunk, Verg. G. 3, 332:

Massyla, i. e. citri,

Stat. S. 3, 3, 94; also,

Maurorum,

id. ib. 4, 2, 39.—
2.
Absol., usu., an oak-tree, an oak in gen.:

fixa est pariter cum robore cervix,

i. e. was pinned fast to the oak, Ov. M. 3, 92:

agitata robora pulsant (delphines),

id. ib. 1, 303.—
3.
Oak-wood, oak:

naves totae factae ex robore,

Caes. B. G. 3, 13; cf.:

(sapiens) non est e saxo sculptus aut e robore dolatus,

Cic. Ac. 2, 31, 101; and with this cf. id. Div. 2, 41, 85. — Poet.:

illi robur et aes triplex Circa pectus erat,

Hor. C. 1, 3, 9; cf.:

o saxis nimirum et robore nati!

Stat. Th. 4, 340. —
II.
Transf.
A.
Of things made of oak or of any other hard wood.
1.
In gen.:

Lacedaemonii cottidianis epulis in robore accumbunt,

i. e. on oaken, hard benches, Cic. Mur. 35, 74.— So of the wooden horse before Troy:

sacrum,

Verg. A. 2, 230; of a lance:

ferro praefixum,

id. ib. 10, 479; Sil. 2, 244; 267; of a club, Ov. M. 12, 349; Mart. 9, 44, 4 et saep.:

aratri,

i. e. the oaken plough, Verg. G. 1, 162; Val. Fl. 7, 555.—
2.
In partic., the lower and stronger part of the prison at Rome, built by Servius Tullius, was called Robur (also Tullianum):

Robus in carcere dicitur is locus, quo praecipitatur maleficorum genus, quod ante arcis robusteis includebatur, Paul. ex Fest. s. v. robum, p. 264 Müll.: in robore et tenebris exspiret,

Liv. 38, 59 fin.:

robur et saxum minitari,

Tac. A. 4, 29; Val. Max. 6, 3, 1:

verbera, carnifices, robur,

Lucr. 3, 1017; Hor. C. 2, 13, 19 (v. carcer and Tullianum).—
B.
Hardness, strength, firmness, vigor, power (cf. vires; v. Fabri ad Liv. 21, 1, 2).
1.
Lit.:

duri robora ferri,

Lucr. 2, 449; so,

ferri,

Verg. A. 7, 609:

saxi,

Lucr. 1, 882:

navium,

Liv. 37, 30: omnia pariter crescunt et robora sumunt, gain strength, [p. 1598] Lucr. 5, 820; 895; cf.:

qui si jam satis aetatis atque roboris haberet, ipse pro Sex. Roscio diceret,

Cic. Rosc. Am. 51, 149:

paululum jam roboris accessit aetati,

id. Cael. 30, 73:

solidaeque suo stant robore vires,

Verg. A. 2, 639; Vulg. Judic. 8, 21:

si quod est robur,

Flor. 2, 1, 1.—
2.
Trop., power, strength, force, vigor (very freq.):

alter virtutis robore firmior quam aetatis,

Cic. Phil. 10, 8, 16:

in animi excelsi atque invicti magnitudine ac robore,

id. Off. 1, 5, 14; so,

animi (with magnitudo),

id. de Or. 2, 84, 343; id. Tusc. 1, 40, 95:

robur incredibile animi,

id. Mil. 37, 101:

quantum in cujusque animo roboris est ac nervorum,

id. Fam. 6, 1, 3:

multo plus firmamenti ac roboris,

id. Imp. Pomp. 4, 10; so (with firmamentum) id. Mur. 28, 58; (with firmitas) id. Fin. 5, 5, 12:

hi tot equites Romani quid roboris hujus petitioni attulerunt?

id. Planc. 8, 21:

pectus robore fultum,

Ov. Tr. 5, 12, 11:

te mea robora fallunt,

id. H. 16, 367:

velocitate pari, robore animi virumque praestanti,

Liv. 24, 26, 11:

verba quanti roboris plena,

Sen. Ep 10, 3:

qui robur aliquod in stilo fecerint,

Quint. 10, 3, 10; cf.:

robur oratorium adicere sententiis,

id. 10, 5, 4; 8, prooem. §

3: illi robur et aes triplex Circa pectus erat,

Hor. C. 1, 3, 9; cf.:

O saxis nimirum et robore nati,

Stat. Th. 4, 340. —
b.
Authority: nostrarum constitutionum, Just. Inst. prooem. 6.—
c.
Concr., the strongest, most effective, or best part, the pith, kernel, strength of any thing; of soldiers, the flower of the troops, choice troops, etc. (freq. and class.):

versaris in optimorum civium vel flore vel robore,

Cic. Or. 10, 34: et robur et suboles militum interiit, Asin. ap. Cic. Fam. 10, 33; cf.:

quod fuit roboris, duobus proeliis interiit,

Caes. B. C. 3, 87:

quod roboris ea provincia habuerat,

Liv. 30, 2; Ov. M. 14, 454 al.:

senatūs robur,

Liv. 5, 39. — Plur.:

tunc C. Flavius Pusio, Cn. Titinnius, C. Maecenas, illa robora populi Romani,

Cic. Clu. 56, 163:

haec sunt nostra robora,

id. Att. 6, 5, 3; Liv. 7, 7; 12; 21, 54; 22, 6; 23, 16; 25, 6 init.:

robora pubis,

Verg. A. 8, 518; Ov. M. 7, 510:

ingentia robora virorum,

Plin. Pan. 34, 3:

conferta robora virorum,

Curt. 3, 5, 13: betae, i. e. stalks, Col. poët. 10, 326. — Of a place, a stronghold:

quod coloniam virium et opum validam robur ac sedem bello legisset,

Tac. H. 2, 19.— Absol.: robus, the name of an excellent kind of wheat:

quoniam et pondere et nitore praestat,

Col. 2, 6, 1.

Lewis & Short Latin Dictionary, 1879. - Revised, Enlarged, and in Great Part Rewritten. . 2011.

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